Protothought Logo Device No.1


Protothought Logo Device No.2

AAs (author's alterations): Client's changes and/or additions to copy after they have been typeset.

Achromatic color: Color with no saturation, such as white, black, or gray.

Additive color primaries: Red, green, and blue (RGB). These colors are used to create all other colors with direct (or transmitted) light (for example, on a computer or television screen). They are called additive primaries because when pure red, green, and blue are superimposed on each other, they create white. Refer to subtractive color primaries.

Aliasing: Visibly jagged steps along angles or object edges due to sharp tonal contrasts between pixels.

Alignment: Placement and shape of text relative to the margins. Alignment settings can be centered, flush left, flush right, justified, ragged right, etc.

All signature folding dummy: Folding dummy in which all of the signatures that make up the job are used to determine the page arrangement for each signature. Also known as a Job Worksheet.

Alpha channel: An 8-bit, gray scale representation of a Photoshop image, often used for creating masks that isolate part of an image.

AM screening: Amplitude-modulated screening. Same as traditional halftone screening. Compare with FM screening.

Annotation: Non-printing layers in some page layout programs used to provide written instructions on certain aspects of an electronic file.

Anti-aliasing: Per computer graphics, the smoothing of the jagged, "stairstep" appearance of graphical elements. See also jaggies.

Artwork: High quality analog black & white, colour analog, black & white digital or colour digital drawing.

: The part of a letter that rises above the main body, such as the rising strokes of the letters "d" and "k." Refer to descender

Aspect ratio: Per computer graphics, ratio of width to height of a screen or image frame.

Automatic Text Flow: Used in desk top publishing, it allows text matter to flow from one column to the next on each page and from one page to the next in a document automatically. It eases the pain of making significant copy changes to a long document.

Automatic Picture Replacement (APR): A linking process where a low resolution image or low resolution placeholder (FPO) is automatically replaced by a high resolution image just before a document is sent to the imagesetter. This allows page layout handlers to work with smaller files without overloading the processors. Also known as AIR or OPI.

Banding: White bands which can be produced if data is sent too slowly to recorders that cannot stop/start successfully. The media continues to feed even though no image is available to print, resulting in white bands in the output. Stripes of color that occur when too few colors are available to achieve a smooth color blend. A visible stair-stepping of shades in a gradient.

: The invisible line which all characters in a line of type rest upon.

batch scanning: The Sequential scanning of multiple originals using previously defined and unique settings for each.

Bezier curve: Per computer graphics, a bezier is a curved line described by two end points and two or four control points. The end points are the ends of the curve itself. The control points determine the shape of the curve, but are not on the curve itself.

Bilevel: A form of image containing only black and white pixels.

Bindery marks: Press Sheet markings that indicate how the sheet should be cropped, folded, collated, or bound.

Bit depth
: The number of bits in each pixel of an image. Also refers to the amount of data per pixel for displaying on a computer monitor. Bit depth sets the maximum number of discrete colors or shades in each pixel; hence, the greater the bit depth, the more vivid and realistic color and greyscale images will appear. This table describes typical bit depths and how they relate to the number of colors/shades available.

Bitmap: An image formed by a matrix of visible or invisible dots (bits). On a computer screen, the dots are formed by pixels. Unlike vector objects or Bezier curves, bitmaps are resolution dependent. See also raster image.

Black point: A movable reference point that defines the darkest area in an image, causing all other areas to be adjusted accordingly.

Text or art that extends beyond the trim page boundaries, or the crop marks, on one or more sides of a page. Part of a printed image that extends beyond the page boundary. When the page is trimmed to size, the "bleed" extends to the absolute edge of the paper, preventing any show-through of the paper color.

Blend: See Graduated fill.

Blind embossing: The technique of creating an image on paper by stamping the paper with a die, creating a visible raised effect, without applying ink to the image (hence, the designation of "blind").
: Also known as blueprint. A one-off print made from stripped-up film or mechanicals, used to confirm position of image elements. Bluelines are usually blue, though not always, and are often utilized (arguably) as a final proof for typeset copy.

Blueprint: a contact print made from the negatives that will be used to make the printing plate. It serves as a final proof, folded and assembled to show how the final job will print.

Body Copy: Text matter that comprises the major content of an article or publication other than mastheads, headlines, sub-heads, call-outs, charts and graphs.

Boxes: This technique is to highlight or isolate important words or graphs from secondary copy surrounding it. Boxes also create interest and give the reader's eye a break from long passages and monotonous amounts of text.

: The relative lightness of an image. Computers represent brightness using a value between 0 (dimmest) and 255 (brightest).

Bromide: High quality black & white Artwork from either Film or Digital origin. (As opposed to a photocopy which is low quality).

Bullets can be solid dots or squares, open dots, or another tiny iconic symbol that is used to enhance a list. Bullets are normally set in a slightly larger point size than the text they accompany and should always be used in a list of no less than five items. Bullets are visually most effective when used with hanging indents.

Cab: See Flat.

Calibration: With regard to recorders and imagesetters, the process of adjusting the device so it correctly reproduces the desired halftones, tints, and so on. See also Linearisation.

Calibration bars: A strip of varying shades usually ranging from 0% to 100% (in 10% increments) on film, proofs, and press sheets. Prepress service providers use calibration bars to measure and control screen percentages for printing and proofing.

Call-Out: A call-out is a short phrase or line of type that helps identify important elements of a graphic or illustration. A connecting line or arrow is often used with a call-out.

Camera-Ready Copy: Black and white artwork that is meant to be processed by shooting it on a process camera, converted to negatives and used to make printing plates. On a direct-to-plate system, the black and white artwork would be converted directly from the art to the printing plate. Used as a generic term for a mechanical, film negative or positive, or any material that is ready to be photographed for the purpose of generating printing plates. Also used as a compound modifier, as in camera-ready mechanical, although this is arguably redundant.

Caption: A caption is a sentence or more used to summarize the importance of charts, graphs, illustrations, photographs, or tables. Captions identify the people in photographs and relate the photo or graphic item to the surrounding body copy. A photograph should always have a caption.

Cast: An unwanted tinge or shade of color present in an image.

Center marks: Press marks that appear on the center of all sides of a press sheet to aid in positioning the print area on the paper.

CEPS: Color Electronic Prepress System. A digital color image manipulation and assembly system used in electronic color separation.

Channel: Information about a single process or spot color contained within an image file. An image may have up to 16 channels.

Chemical Proof: see Proof

Choke: The process of overprinting a small border on graphics to make them appear smaller. See also Trap.

Chroma: A synonym for color or hue.

Chromatic: Perceived as having a hue, not white, gray or black.

Chromaticity: A measure of the combination of both hue and saturation in color produced by lights.

Cicero: A unit of measurement in the Didot system, commonly used in Europe. A cicero is slightly larger than a pica and is approximately 4.55 millimeters.

CIE: Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage, the international body that sets standards for illumination and developed the CIE color models. CIE color models A family of mathematical models that describe color in terms of hue, lightness, and saturation. The CIE color models include CIE XYZ, CIELAB, CIELUV, and CIE xyZ.

Clip art: Illustrations and designs collected and usually sold commercially.

Click Art:
Electronic art files that are already on a disk are called click art.

Clipping: The conversion of all tones lighter than a specified gray level to white, or darker than a specified grey level to black, causing loss of detail. This also applies to individual channels in a colour image.

Clipping path:
The boundary of a graphical mask (created by points and straight or curved lines) used to screen out parts of an image and expose or print other parts. Only what is inside the clipping path is displayed or printed. A series of Bezier curves drawn around a particular area of an image to isolate it from its background, so that it appears to be masked or silhouetted when placed in a page-layout program. Typically performed in Adobe Photoshop.

CMS: Colour management system. This ensures colour uniformity across input and output devices so that final printed results match originals. The characteristics or profiles of devices are normally established by reference to standard colour targets.

CMYK: A subtractive color mixing model consisting of the four process colors used in printing: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. In this color model, black is created by applying 100% of each of these four colors. To arrive at other colors, certain percentages of these colors are subtracted. Subtracting 100% of each of these four colors yields white (or the color of the paper stock).

Color: Light waves that reach the viewer's eye by transmission (through an object between the viewer and the light source) or by reflection (when light waves bounce off an object). All substances, whether transparent or opaque, absorb some wavelengths while letting others pass through or bounce off. A red apple looks red because it absorbs all colors in white light except red, which it reflects. White objects reflect all and black objects absorb all light waves (at least in theory).

Color, additive: Color produced by mixing colored lights. Combining colored lights produces a lighter result because white light is composed of all the colors of the spectrum. (In other words, adding color leads to white.)

Color overlay : A sheet of film or paper whose text and art correspond to one spot color or process color. Each color overlay becomes the basis for a single printing plate that will apply that color to paper.

Color proof: A representation matching the appearance of the final printed piece. Includes color laser proofs, color overlay proofs, and laminate proofs. A representation of what the printed composition will look like. The resolution and quality will vary greatly depending on the proofing device. These can be provided during the various stages of page construction.

Color separation: The process of transforming color artwork into four components corresponding to the four process colors. If spot colors are used, additional components may be created containing only those items that will appear in the corresponding spot color layer. Each component is imaged to film or paper in preparation for making printing plates that correspond to each ink.

Color, subtractive: Color produced by mixing pigments (such as inks or paints). Combining pigments produces a darker result. (In other words, subtracting colors leads to white.)

Color bars: Rectangles of color printed on color proofs to check the ink densities, trapping, and other technical factors required to conform to quality standards.

Color break: Artwork prepared so as to indicate which elements print in which ink color. Copy and art for each color may be pasted on separate boards, pasted on on overlays, or indicated in pencil on an overlay sheet of tissue paper.

Colour cast: An overall colour imbalance in an image, as if viewed through a coloured filter.

Color conversion: Black-and-white version made from a color photograph or other original.

Color correction: The adjustment of colors in any photographic, electronic, or manual process to obtain a correct image by compensating for the deficiencies of process inks, color separation, or undesired balance of the original image.

Color filter: Dyed gelatin or plastic under glass, used to absorb certain colors and improve others. Blue, green, and red filters are used in making color separations.

Color key: A set of four acetate overlays, each utilizing a halftone consisting of one of the four process colors used for proofing color separations.

Color lookup table: A table of values, each of which corresponds to a different color that can be displayed on a computer monitor or used in an image. For example, an indexed color image uses a color lookup table of up to 256 colors.

Color matching: Specifying flat colors according to numbered samples on a color chart.

Color proof: Hard copy in color to check before a job is printed.

Color saturation: The amount of a hue contained in a color; the greater the saturation, the more intense the color.

Color separation: A file, printout, or plate created by breaking down a continuous-tone, multi-colored image into single-color components. by applying the appropriate process or spot color to each separation and then overprinting this information on the page, offset printers can reproduce the original image.

Color space: A scheme of representation for color images, such as CMYK or RGB. Color are represented as a combination of a small set of other colors or by other parameters (like hue, saturation, and brightness).

Color wheel: A circle that displays the spectrum of visible colors. It provides a graphic representation of the relationship between primary and secondary colors with successive color mixtures and tonal values.

Colorimeter: A light-sensitive device for measuring colours by filtering their red, green and blue components, as in the human eye. See also spectrophotometer.

Combination signatures: Signatures of different sizes inserted at any position in a layout.

Comp: Comprehensive artwork used to represent the general color and layout of a page.

Complementary color: The inverted hue of a color (the one that is diametrically opposite on a color wheel). For example, yellow is the complementary color of blue.

Composite proof: A version of an illustration or page in which the process colors appear together to represent full color. When produced on a monochrome output device, colors are represented as shades of gray.

Composition is the process of keyboarding and combining typographic elements into pleasing page layouts for print production.

Compression: The reduction in size of an image file. See also lossy and non-lossy.

Computer-Ready Electronic Files (CREF): A written outline of parameters for the preparation and output of film and plates that was developed by the Scitex Company to assist in the handling and processing of electronic art files for printing. Scitex is a manufacturer of electronic prepress and proofing systems for the graphic arts industry.

Condensed type: Type in which the individual characters are narrower than normal so that more characters can fit on a single line. When the set width of a font has been shortened, the font will be more narrow—allowing more characters to fit on any given line length. Fonts should be condensed by using a true "condensed" version of a typeface. Condensing type by using the "attributes" selection screen of a page layout program increases the risk that the outputting or dtp equipment will not recognize the font or ignore it completely.

Continuous-tone (CT also contone) image: A color or black-and-white image, such as a photograph or a painting. Any graphic element which has a grey scale or is not "line art" originated from a continuous tone image. Examples of continuous tone originals are black and white photographs or pencil sketches. Continuous tone originals should be scanned and saved as TIFF files for use in page layout programs.

Contract Proof: A proof supplied to a printer to document the color results expected on press.

Contrast: The difference between the dark and light values in an image. Images with a great deal of contrast contain mostly very dark and very light values, while low-contrast images contain mostly medium gray values.

Copyfitting: Copyfitting is the process of writing or editing articles to fit into a predetermined space allowance. Good copyfitting results in evenly filled columns and pages with the proper amount of white space.

Creep: The movement of a press sheet while traveling through a press. Sometimes associated with shingling.

Cromalin: see Proof

Cromacheck: see Proof

Crop marks: Short, fine lines used as guides for final trimming of the pages within a press sheet. Short, fine lines that mark where a printed page should be trimmed when it is printed on paper that is larger than the image area.

Cropping: Cropping is the process of eliminating irrelevent or excessive background content of photographs. Cropping enhances the focus of photographs and allows the designer to change the shape of the original photo.

Custom printer description file: A file containing information specific to a type of output device; used in conjunction with a standard PPD file to customize the printing process.

Dandyroll: Cylinder on a paper machine for creating finishes, such as wove, laid, or linen, and for adding watermarks.

Data underrun: The result of a raster image processor (RIP) failing to supply data to an output device quickly enough. If the output device cannot stop/start successfully, banding or other negative effects may occur.

DCS: Acronym for Desktop Color Separation, a version of the EPS file format. DCS 1.0 files are composed of five PostScript files for each color image: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black file, plus a separate low-resolution FPO, image to place in a digital file. In contrast, DCS 2.0 files can have a single file that stores process color and spot color information. A preseparated image file format, developed by Quark, Inc., consisting of five parts: four process color separation files (containing the cyan, magenta, yellow, and black components of the image) and a composite EPS placeholder file. A variation of the EPS file format for CMYK images where the process color information is stored in four separate files. A fifth "master" file is used for placement in a page layout. This format is sometimes used by prepress vendors instead of OPI, or APR images. The master file can be sent to the designer for placement in the layout.

The expansion of compressed image files. See also lossy and non-lossy.

Densitometer: A device used throughout the printing process to measure the amount of light passing through or reflecting from a given medium.Die line In a digital file, the outline used to create a device for cutting, stamping, or embossing the finished printed piece into a particular shape, such as a rolodex card.

Density: The ability of an object to stop or absorb light. The less the light is

reflected or transmitted by an object, the higher the density.

Density range: The range from the smallest highlight dot the press can print to the largest shadow dot it can print.

: That part of a letter that drops below the baseline, such as the lower strokes of the letters "g" and "p." Refer to ascender.

Descreening: Removal of halftone dot patterns during or after scanning printed matter by defocusing the image. This avoids moire patterning and colour shifts during subsequent halftone reprinting.

Dichroic mirror: A special type of interference filter, which reflects a specific part of the spectrum, whilst transmitting the rest. Used in scanners to split a beam of light into RGB components.

Digital: A format which is recognizable and readable by a computer system.

Digital Photography: Digital cameras use a CCD sensor that capture light and convert it into electrical signals, when are then converted into digital data. Images may be temporarily stored in random access memory (RAM), in-camera storage media, or moved directly to a computer's drive.

Digitise: Convert information to computer-readable form. Digitized typesetting is the creation of typographic characters by the arrangement of black and white pixels.

Dimensional stability: Degree to which paper maintains its size and shape in the printing process and when subjected to changes in moisture content or relative humidity.

Dingbat: A decorative character.

Direct-to-plate: Direct exposure of image data onto printing plates, without the intermediate use of film.

Direct-to-press: Elimination of intermediate film and printing plates by the direct transfer of image data to printing cylinders in the press.

Disproportioning: the anamorphic distortion of an object to allow for growth in Flexographic printing.

Display type: Type set larger than the text to attract attention.

Dithering: A technique used in computer graphics to create the illusion of varying shades of gray or additional colors by distributing the screen pixels or imagesetter dots of an image. Dithering relies on the eye's tendency to blur spots of different colors by averaging their effects and merging them into a single perceived shade or color.

Dmax: The point of maximum density in an image or original.

Dmin: The point of minimum density in an image or original.

Document: Computer file created with an application program.

Dot: In printing, a small spot which combines with other dots in a matrix of rows and columns to form characters or graphic elements.

Dot gain:
In halftone printing, the tendency of the ink used to create halftone dots to flow outward as it is absorbed by the paper. Too much dot gain can create a cloudy or dark image. A phenomenon that results due to the tendency of wet ink to spread when it contacts paper. This results in a slightly larger dot than appears on the printing plate itself, and in some cases may cause images to darken or appear "muddy." Image files should be prepared in such a manner so as to allow for dot gain, a process known as gain compensation.

Dot shape: The shape of the dots that make up a halftone. Dot shapes can be round, square, elliptical, linear, etc.

Downloadable font: A font not resident in a printer's memory that must be sent to the printer in order to print a document containing that font.

Down sampling: The process of acquiring a low-resolution copy of an high-resolution image for layout purposes only. The reduction in resolution of an image, necessitating a loss in detail.

Dots per inch. A measure of screen and printer resolution that is expressed as the number of dots that a device can print or display per linear inch.
The number of dots in a linear inch (as opposed to a square inch). Therefore, a 600-dpi laser printer prints 600 dots per linear inch, or 360,000 (600 x 600) dots per square inch. DPI is also known as resolution, as in "What is the resolution of your printer/scanner/TIFF file/monitor?" Printer, scanner, image and monitor resolution are all typically expressed in terms of DPI. However, since image files are made up of pixels, and since monitors display pixels rather than dots, image resolution and monitor resolution should technically be expressed in PPI (pixels per inch). Refer to LPI (lines per inch)

Drop cap: A decorative capital letter at the beginning of a paragraph that hangs below the top line of the paragraph and occupies space of more than one line.

Drop shadow: A colored or shaded box or character offset and placed behind an identical box or character to give a shadow effect.

Drum scanner: Early drum scanners separated scans into CMYK data, recording these directly onto film held on a second rotating drum.

DSC: Acronym for Document Structuring Conventions, a set of organizational and commenting conventions for PostScript files designed to provide a standard order and format for information so applications that process PostScript, such as PressWise, can easily find information about a document's structure and imaging requirements. These conventions allow specially formatted PostScript comments to be added to the page description; applications can search for these comments, but PostScript interpreters usually ignore them. TrapWise requires that the PostScript in incoming files is formatted using conventional DSC comments, so certain functions may not work if the file is not DSC-conforming.

A halftone image rendered in two dot colors, one of which is usually black.
A halftone printed with two color plates, usually black and a spot color. Very useful for two-color print jobs containing grayscale images.

Dye sublimation: A printing process using small heating elements to evaporate pigments from a carrier film, depositing these smoothly onto a substrate.

Electronic printing: Any technology that reproduces pages without the use of traditional ink, water, or chemistry. Usually electrostatic or electrophotographic.

Electrostatic printing or copying: Printing process which works by creating an image with an electrostatic charge on a polished plate, attracting magnetic ink (toner) to the plate, and transferring it to paper with heat and pressure. (see also Xerography)

The ellipsis is a set of three dots which look like a series of periods. They are used to indicate missing copy when place between two sentences or phrases. They are commonly used when bits or quips of information are being taken from a long quotation. They can also be used in pairs as a "continuation technique" when you want to lead the reader into other copy. But, don't forget to place the second set of ellipsis before the final connecting copy so the reader knows where to go.

Em: Unit of space (width) equal to the point size of the type.

Em Dash:
An em dash is used to abruptly change a thought within a sentence or to connect two different thoughts within a sentence. The actual length of an em dash is approximately four times the length of a hyphen and is relative to the set width of the font which you are using. Em dashes received their name due to the fact that they are equivalent to the width of the capital letter em (M).
Em Space:
An Em space is a fixed amount of blank space equivalent to the width of a capital letter em (M). Em spaces are frequently used for paragraph indents and bullet item indents because they are fixed units. Em spaces are relative to the set width of the font being used.
En Dash:
An en dash is used to denote continuation; as in "pages 4-5" and "1966-1995." The actual length of an en dash is approximately two times the length of a hyphen and is relative to the set width of the font which you are using. En dashes received their name due to the fact that they are equivalent to the width of the capital letter en (N). An en dash is one-half the width of an em dash.
En Space:
An En space is a fixed amount of blank space equivalent to the width of a capital letter en (N). En spaces are frequently used when a fixed amount of space is needed, but less space than the more commonly used em space. En spaces are relative to the set width of the font being used. An en space is one-half the width of an em space.

Emboss: To stamp a raised or depressed area or image into paper with metal dies after printing.

Em dash: A punctuation mark generally used to signify a change or interruption in the train of thought expressed in a sentence or to set off an explanatory comment.

Emulsion: The portion of a film which forms the image. In a positive, where there is no emulsion, there is no image and the opposite is true for a negative.

En: Half an em.

Encapsulated PostScript (EPS):
A file format that stores PostScript information in an image file so that it may be transferred as a unit to a suitable page layout or drawing program or used for preparing images for later typesetting. An encapsulated PostScript file has two parts: a low resolution (72 dpi) bitmap picture of the screen and a full resolution-indepedent PostScript description to pass on to a suitable printer. A file format consisting of Postscript code and comments that describe a draw-type illustration, along with a 72-dpi PICT or TIFF file containing a screen preview of the illustration.

En dash: A punctuation mark used to indicate a range of dates or numbers or to separate the elements of a compound adjective, one part of which is hyphenated or consists of two words.

EPS: See encapsulated PostScript.

EPS 5: Another term used for DCS.

Errata: A list of errors in a book which are of sufficient importance to be called to the attention of the reader.

Etchant: A substance, like an acid, used in etching or in fountain solution.

Euclidean dot shapes: Round, elliptical, square, or linear halftone dots that invert with their cell after 50% intensity. This strategy helps reduce dot gain problems sometimes experienced with elliptical, square, and linear dots.

Eyemark: A small block of print used to trigger packaging equipment.

Executive: A faculty of Screen's HQ RIP which provides a direct PostScript interface.

When the set width of a font has been lengthened, the font will be wider‹allowing fewer characters to fit on any given line length. Fonts should be expanded by using a true "expanded" version of a typeface. Expanding type by using the "attributes" selection screen of a page layout program increases the risk that the outputting or dtp equipment will not recognize the font or ignore it completely.

Exploded view: A type of illustration that shows a structure with its parts separated but drawn in relation to each other.

Export: To transfer information from the current program to another location or program. See import.

Exposure: A setting on certain recorders which alters the strength of the laser. If the selected recorder has an exposure setting, it may be changed using the HQ RIP's Page Setup dialog.

Facing pages: Two pages that face each other in a printed publication.

A family of type is the complete font set with all its related attributes. One family can include: roman, italic, bold, bold italic, black, black italic, light, light italic, thin, thin italic, plus all the condensed and expanded versions of the previously listed.

Feathering: The progressive bleed-off at the soft edge of an image so that it blends with the underlying image or background color.

Film assembly: See Stripping.

Film negative
: Film containing an image in which the values of the original image are reversed. Film negatives are typically output from imagesetters and are used to create printing plates. Refer to Film Positive.
Film positive
: Same as film negative, except that the image is not reversed. Usually used when the film is to be duplicated, rather than directly photographed to create printing plates.

Film recorder: Used in reference to colour transparency recording devices, and sometimes also to imagesetters.

First signature folding dummy: A folding dummy that determines the page arrangement for a single signature layout template. This template can then be applied to a job that requires multiple signatures, and PressWise will correctly impose all the pages based on the numbering sequence and binding method specified by the first signature.

Flat: Individual film assembled onto a film carrier readied for contacting or platemaking. Referred to as a cab in gravure printing.

flatbed scanner: Any scanning device that incorporates a flat transparent plate, on which original images are placed for scanning. The scanning process is linear rather than rotational.

Flexographic printing: Printing on a press using a rubber plate that stretches around a cylinder, making it necessary to compensate by distorting the plate image. Flexography is used most often in label printing, often on metal or other non-paper material.

Flip: To rotate an image along either its horizontal or vertical axis.

Flood: A user-defined, screened box that prints on and completely covers a PressWise blank page.

Flush: Aligned or even with.

Flush Left: Aligned along the left edge or margin.

Flush right: Aligned along the right edge or margin.

FM screening: Frequency-modulated screening. A type of screening that employs irregular clusters of equally sized CMYK pixels to represent continuous-tone images. The placement of these pixels, although seemingly random, is precisely calculated to produce the desired hue and intensity. This process differs from traditional halftoning in which the distance between CMYK dots remains constant while dot size varies to create the desired hue and intensity. Compare AM screening. See also Stochastic Screening.

Fold marks: Dotted or dashed lines on camera-ready art that indicate where to fold the printed piece.

Folding dummy: A template used for determining the page arrangement on a form to meet folding and binding requirements. See also All signature folding dummy and First signature folding dummy.

Folio: A printed page number.

A set of letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and symbols that share a unified design. The design is called a typeface. A group of related typefaces is a type family.
A font is the specific name applied to a particular typeface style. Examples of font names are Helvetica, Times, Americana, and Zapf Chancery.
The information about a publication, such as its title, date, issue or page number is a footer when is consistently appears at the bottom of each page of the document.
A footnote is a numbered passage which amplifies specific information on the page and provides direction about how to find sources or related reading.

Form: In PressWise, the front or back of a signature.

Format: The overall appearance of a publication, including page size, paper, binding, length, and page-design elements such as margins, number of columns, treatment of headlines, and so on.

For position only (FPO): A photcopy, photostat, or low-resolution electronic copy of an image or piece of art positioned on the camera-ready page to indicate the position of the actual art to be stripped in by the printer or inserted by the system during prepress processing. a term applied to low-quality art reproductions used to indicate placement and scaling of an art element on mechanicals or camera-ready artwork. In digital publishing, an FPO can be low-resolution TIFF files that are later replaced with high-resolution versions. An FPO is not intended for reproduc-tion but only as a guide and placeholder for the prepress service provider.

Fountain solution: A solution of water, gum arabic, and other chemicals used to repel ink from non-printing areas of the lithographic plate.

Four-color process: The most common full-color printing process which uses color separation to produce one image for each of the four process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black). Each color is then overprinted to reproduce the full color of the image.

Frame: An outline between abutting color areas.

Frame-grabbing system: A combination of hardware and software, designed to capture individual frames from video clips for further digital manipulation, or consecutive replay on computer platforms.

Frequency: Halftone screen resolution. That is, the spacing of the dot matrix in a halftone image, usually expressed as lines per inch (lpi).

Gain compensation
: The process of preparing an image file to compensate for the increase in dot size, known as dot gain that occurs when wet ink spreads on paper. Adjustments to compensate for dot gain are typically performed in Adobe Photoshop or a similar image editing program.

Galley: Traditionally, proofs of type printed in final column width for the purposes of proofreading and layout checking.

A measure of contrast that affects the mid-range grays (midtones) of an image. Gamma is often expressed as a curve. Technically, a numerical representation of contrast in an image. Adjusting the gamma, which is what you are doing when you move the middle slider in Photoshop's "Levels" dialog, allows you to correct midtones without noticeable changes in the highlight and shadow areas.

Gamma correction: The correction of tonal ranges in an image, normally by the adjustment of tone curves.

Gamut: The range of colors that a device can reproduce. The naked eye, the camera, the computer monitor, and the four-color printing press all have different color gamuts. The eyes range has the widest gamut and the printing press has the narrowest.

Gamut mapping: The process of color matching in which differences in color gamuts between the source device and the target device are taken into consideration.

Gamut simulation: The process by which a device with a wider gamut can simulation the behavior of a device with a narrower gamut.

gang scanning: Sequential scanning of multiple originals using the same previously- defined exposure setting for each.

Gatefold: A four-page insert or cover with foldouts on either side, making the equivalent of 8 pages.

Gateway: A special-purpose device that performs a Layer 7 conversion of information from one protocol stack to another.

GCR: Gray component replacement. A color separation technique that uses black instead of combinations of cyan, magenta, and yellow in reproducing the gray components of colors. This provides a more economical use of inks and improved color trapping. a technique for minimizing ink coverage. When TrapWise converts RGB data to CMYK, it analyzes a bitmap image for gray tones composed of cyan, magenta, or yellow and replaces those colors with a similar percentage of black.

When an image is screened back or shaded down in intensity, it is called a ghosted image. Both full-color and black and white images can be ghosted.

GIF: Graphic Interchange Format. A platform-independent image file developed by CompuServe that is commonly used to display and distribute images on the Internet. A compressed digital image format widely used for electronically published images on the Internet. Any single image may only contain a maximum of 256 different colours, generally considered inadequate to represent photos. Pronounced Jiff.

Gothic-style typefaces: San serif typefaces.

Gradient fill: See graduated fill.

Graduated colors: A graded series of colors that changes progressively from one color to another or from light to dark or dark to light within the same color. See also Vignette

Graduated fill: An area in which two colors (or shades of gray) are blended so as to create a gradual change from one to the other. Graduated fills are also known as blends, gradations, gradient fills, and vignettes.

Grain: In paper, the direction in which fibers line up.

Graphic Accents:
Graphic Accents emphasize and organize words, illustrations and photographs. Boxes, drop shadows, indents, lines, rules, screens and icons are considered graphic accents.

Graphics Linking: A page layout term that refers to the way placed graphics files are managed by software. When a graphic is placed on a page, it appears there but does not become part of the page layout file. The page layout software keeps track of the location of the graphics file (the link) and will download that file when the page layout is printed.

Grey balance: The balance between CMY colorants required to produce neutral greys without a colour cast.

Grey component replacement: See GCR.

Grey levels: Discrete tonal steps in a continuous tone image, inherent to digital data. Most CT images will contain 256 grey levels per colour.

Greyscale: The representation of colors in varying shades of gray¬usually 256 shades in digital artwork.

A grid is the defining of headline positions, column length and width, placement of headers and footers and and any other predetermined placement of photographs or graphic elements on a page. A series of nonprinting horizontal and vertical rules assist in creating and maintaining a grid for page layout.

Grind-off: The trim at the back (or spine) of a signature, or of two or more gathered signatures, in prepara-tion for perfect binding.

Gripper: The part of the press or printer that holds the paper and guides it through the press. Also, the edge of the paper so held.

: Extra space between pages in a layout. Gutters can appear either between the top and bottom of two adjacent pages or between two sides of adjacent pages. Gutters are often used because of the binding or layout requirements of a job ¬for example, to add space at the top or bottom of each page or to allow for the grind-off taken when a book is perfect bound. Gutters are the white spaces which appear between columns of type. Gutter widths should be wide enough to clearly define columns and narrow enough to not lose the reader.

Hairline rule: A very thin typographic rule.

Halftone: The representation of a continuous-tone image as a series of dots that look like gray tones when printed. Also called a screened halftone because traditionally the original image is photographed through a finely ruled screen, the density of which varies depending on the printer's capabilities. See also AM screening, FM screening, and screening.

Halftone resolution: The spacing of the dot matrix in a haltone image, usually measured in lines per inch (lpi). Also called the frequency or halftone frequency.

Halftoning factor: See quality factor.

Halo: A light line around object edges in an image, produced by the USM (sharpening) technique.

Hang: To place characters outside the left margin.

Hanging indent:
A paragraph style in which the left margin of the first line extends beyond the left margin of subsequent lines. A hanging indent is when copy is indented to the left of the rest of the paragraph. Bulleted items are visually most effective when they use hanging indents.

Hard copy: Printed images or information. See also soft copy.

Harlequin Precision Screening (HPS): A set of screening algorithms developed by Harlequin Incorporated that precisely controls the accuracy of screen angles and frequency to reduce moire patterns.

A head or headline is an enlarged phrase which gives the reader a preview of the content to follow. Heads are very important elements because they motivate the reader to continue reading the associated material.
The information about a publication; such as its title, date, issue, or page number is a header when is consistently appears at the top of each page of the document.

Headline: The title of an article or story.

Heavy Ink Coverage:
When over 30% of a sheet has ink coverage on it, the order is considered to have heavy ink coverage.

High key: A light image that is intentionally lacking in shadow detail.

The lightest tones in an image. A spectral highlight is a bright, reflected light source. The lightest (brightest) areas of an image; usually refers to areas with less than or equal to a 10% dot. Areas with no visible dot (like sunlight reflecting off a chrome bumper) are known as specular highlights.

Refer to shadows, midtones.

Histogram: A chart displaying the tonal ranges present In an lmage as a series of vertical bars. A graphic representation of the distribution of light and dark pixels in an image, which provides the information necessary to make tonal adjustments. Available in any image editing program worth its salt; in Adobe Photoshop, it's accessed via the "Image" menu.

Hue: The colour of an object perceived by the eye due to the fact that a single or pair of RGB primary colours predominates.

Hyphenation: When words are too long to fit on a single line, hyphenation splits the word and places the latter half on the next line of type. Hyphenation is automatic in page layout programs but should be done manually to repair bad word breaks and enhance copyfitting. Hyphenation can also be turned off if no hyphens are preferred.

Hyphenated Zone:
The hyphenation zone is the space near the column's right edge which will allow hyphenation. Long hyphenation zones result in fewer word splits than short hyphenation zones.

Icon: In graphical environments, a small graphic image displayed on the screen to represent an object that can be manipulated by the user.

Image area: The area inside the page margins. Some page elements, such as page-number markers, are placed outside of the image area.

Imagesetter: A typesetting device that can transfer camera-ready text and artwork directly to paper or film at high resolutions. Imagesetters usually are PostScript-compatible through the use of a dedicated raster image processor (RIP).

Imaging: The process of producing a film or paper copy of a digital file from an output device.

Import: To bring information into the current program from another location or program. See export.

Imposition: A type of layout that correctly positions photographic negatives or positives on a lithographic flat for simultaneous printing as a signature.

The process of arranging individual pages on a form to construct a signature so the pages will be in proper sequence after printing, folding, and binding.

 Impression: The pressure applied to the form by means of a platen or cylinder to give a print from.

Impression cylinder: Cylinder of an offset press that squeezes the paper against the blanket cylinder carrying the image.

The most common indent is at the beginning of a paragraph when the first line is "set-in" from the left edge of the column. An indent can be placed on the left side only (as in paragraph beginnings) or on the left and right sides of copy (when a block of text needs to be set apart from the rest of the paragraph).

Indexed color image: A single-channel image, with 8 bits of color information per pixel. The index is a color lookup table containing up to 256 colors. A pixel colour system that uses a limited number of distinct colours (usually 256 colours) to represent a digital image, rather than describing a colour using bit depth.

Ink-jet printer: A nonimpact printer that fires tiny drops of ink at the paper to create characters or graphics.

Inside margin: The space between the binding edge of the page and the text.

Inside Print: Wrong reading plate or wrong reading emusion down film. see also Reverse Print.

Interpolated resolution
: See optical resolution.

Interpolation: In the image manipulation context, this is the increase of image resolution by the addition of new pixels throughout the image, the colours of which are based on neighbouring pixels.

Isometric view: A display method that shows three-dimensional objects with height and width but without the change in perspective that would be added by depth.

IT8: Industry standard colour reference target used to calibrate input and output devices.

Italic: A type style in which the characters are slanted upward to the right. Usually, italic characters have different shapes than their Roman counterparts.

This is the abreviation for International Typographic Corporation, which licenses many of the typefaces used in computerized graphic design. ITC fonts are identical to the typefaces used on phototypesetting equipment and based on the original "hot type" font designs. They are considered higher quality typographic forms because they have retained their letterform integrity through the years and are more reliable when transferred from computer to outputting devices.

Jaggies: The stepstepped effect of bit-mapped type and graphics caused when square pixels represent diagonal or curved lines. See anti-aliasing.

Jitter: Small vibrations or fluctuations in a displayed image caused by irregularities in the display signal.

Job: In prepress and printing, the collection of files associated with a single project including page layout files, image files, etc.

Job state: The state of working in PressWise while one or more jobs are open. Opposite of no-job state.

Joint Photographic Experts Group. An organization that has defined various file compression techniques. An image compression standard describing a type of compression used on photographic images. JPEG compression discards data, but does it in an intelligent fashion that results in a much smaller file size with very little loss in quality. JPEG is also used to refer to files that have been compressed using the JPEG standard.

Jumpline: A line of text that indicates the page where an article or story continues or the carryover line on the subsequent page that identifies the article or story being continued. When an article is continued from one page to another, the jumpline placed at the end of the first page to identify where the article is continued. A jumpline should also appear at the beginning of the continuation page to tell the reader where the article started.

Lines of type in a column that are flush with both the right and left column margins. If only one side of the text column is flush, it is said to be right-justified or left-justified. Left-justified column are also called ragged-right because the right side which is not justified tends to be uneven. Justified type is when the left and right sides align with each other and fill a column's width. Wordspacing and letterspacing will vary more with justified type than with nonjustified type layouts.

Kern: To selectively adjust the space between characters to improve readability or to achieve balanced, proportional type.

kernel size: The number of pixels sampled as a unit during image manipulation and sharpening processes.

Kerning refers to improving the appearance of type by adjusting the spacing between selected pairs of letters. The most problematic pairs of letters are AV, AY, FA, AW, PA, and AT. Kerning becomes of greater importance as type size increases such as in headlines and poster copy which uses all caps.

Kerning pair: A pair of characters for which tighter kerning is automatically applied. Kerning pairs are defined in kerning tables built into most fonts.

Kerning table: A table built into most fonts containing kerning pairs.

Keyboarding is the process of typing in the raw text (headlines, subheads and body copy) for a publication in preparation for turning it over to a graphic designer. A word processing program should be used for keyboarding and the files should be saved in ASCII formats or as "text only" or "export files" for proper file transfer.
A black border or frame surrounding a color area.

A thin border around a picture or a box indicating where to place pictures. In digital files, the keylines are often vector objects while photographs are usually bitmap images. KEYLINESBlack and white artwork which has been output and pasted into position on a sheet with "key" identity "lines" indicating the position of trims, drill holes, folds, scores, and die-cuts. Keylines are also referred to as camera-ready artwork.

A phrase preceding a headline that provides information about the story. KICKERA kicker is a short phrase of key word which introduces a headline. Kickers can also be used to relate a headline to a particular portion of a publication.

Kiss fit: A condition that exists when abutting colors in a knockout come together with no trapping, framing, or keylines.

The process of removing the portion of a background color that lies underneath an object so that the object color will not mix with the background color during printing. A printing technique that prints overlapping objects without mixing inks. The ink for the underlying element does not print (knocks out) in the area where the objects overlap. Opposite of overprinting. A printing technique for printing overlapping elements without mixing the inks used to print them. For example, when one element overlaps another, the ink used to print the bottom element knocks out (does not print) in any area where the two elements overlap.

See also: overprint, trapping.

Kraft: Extremely strong paper used when durability is important. May be unbleached and brown like a grocery bag, bleached, or bleached and dyed.

laser printer: Although a number of devices employ laser technology to print images, this normally refers to black- and-white desktop printers, which use the dry toner, xerographic printing process.

Lay: The position of print on a sheet of paper.

Layout: The overall plan or design of a document or document page.

A dotted or dashed line used with tab stops.
LEADERA leader is a repeating symbol used to draw a reader from one area of an article to another area. Dots are the most common leader elements.
The measurement of the space occupied by a line of text from one baseline to the next. This takes into consideration the size of the text and the space between lines of text.
LEADINGLeading is the vertical space relationship between one line of type and the next. Computer graphics normally default to +2 points of leading for any given point size selected. (i.e. 10 point type uses 12 points of leading and 14 point type uses 16 points of leading). In general, the larger a point size gets, the better it will look with reduced leading. Increased and decreased leading can also be used for copyfitting purposes.

Leaf: Page with printing on both sides.

Left-justified: A paragraph of text in which the left edge is flush and the right edge is ragged. Also called ragged right.

Letterspacing: Extra space between characters.

Lexicon: The words of a language and their definitions.

Ligature: In typography, two or more letters merged into one.

Lightness: perception by which white objects are distinguished from gray objects and light from dark coloured objects.

Linear fill: A fill that is projected from one point to another in a straight line.

Line art:
A drawing that contains only black and white with no shades of gray.
Line art consists of non-shaded or non-screened black and white images. Line art cannot be continuous tone imagery such as photographs or pencil sketches. Some examples of line art are type matter, solid black and white logos, icons or pen-and-ink drawings.

Linespacing: Distance from baseline to baseline.

is the copyrighted brand name of the most popular imagesetting system using PostScript Page Description Language.

Lint: Particles of paper dust which can degrade print quality.

Lithography: Printing process where image areas and non-image areas are separated chemically.

Live Area:
A page's live area is the part between borders and margins where most text and graphics will appear.
Live Art Files:
The original electronic file used to create and identify an EPS or TIFF image. This can be an original drawing that has been created in FreeHand, Illustrator or CorelDraw or a scanned image. Live art files are necessary inclusions in processing electronic documents because they are the links needed to produce high resolution output.
A logo is a stylized name of a company or organization set in a unique way and often accompanied by an illustration or icon. A successful logo should be reproducible in its original color designa dn a black and white version.

Lossy: Image compression that functions by removing minor tonal and/or colour variations, causing visible loss of detail at high compression ratios.

Lowercase: Noncapital letters, such as a, b, c, and so on. The name is derived from the practice of placing these letters in the bottom (lower) case of a pair of type cases. Compare uppercase.

low key: A dark image that is intentionally lacking in highlight detail.

Low resolution: An image or screen in relatively coarse detail. In raster-oriented printing or displays, low resolution has to do with the number of pixels or dots used to reproduce the image. The fewer the pixels, the lower the resolution.

LPI: Lines per inch. The unit in which haltone frequency is measured. Ipi/lpcm

Lines per inch or per centimetre. Units of measurement for screen ruling.

Luminance: The degree of lightness or darkness in colors created by mixing lights. The equivalent value in colors created by mixing pigments.

LZW: The Lempel-Ziv-Welch image compression technique.

Margin: The distance from the edge of the paper to the image area occupied by text and graphics.

Mask: A file format used with an image file in prepress systems for stripping. Mask files utilize a clipping path and are superimposed over an image to define which portions of the image should print and which should not. Image pixels inside the clipping path print; pixels outside the clipping path do not.

Master: Any device that controls other devices (called slaves).

Master page: A nonprinting page in certain page layout programs that help to define the basic layout and format of document pages. A master page can contain headers, footers, page numbers, graphic elements, etc.

Masthead: The list of staff, owners, and subscription information for a periodical.

Matte: The term used to describe the emulsion of a film which is roughened to allow easier release of trapped gasses during the vaccuum process used in contacting and platemaking.

Mechanical: In traditional publishing, one or more artboards with type galleys, line art, "for-position-only" photostats, and tissue overlays to indicate color. In electronic publishing, the final camera-ready page with position-only stats keyed to flat art to be stripped in by the printer.

Midtones: Those parts of an image with colors of intermediate value--that is, in the 25% to 75% value range.

Misregistration: The unwanted result of incorrectly aligned process colors and spot colors on a finished printed piece. Misregistration can be caused by many factors, including paper stretch and improper plate alignment. Trapping can compensate for misregistration.

Mockup: In PressWise, a proof used to ensure the correct page numbers, orientation, and dimensions are used in the final printout of an imposition layout. A PressWise mockup does not include any of the text or graphics of the imposed page.Multiple-up layout See Step-and-repeat.

Moirè pattern: An undesirable pattern in color printing resulting from incorrect screen angles of overprinting halftones. moire

A repetitive interference pattern caused by overlapping symmetrical grids of dots or lines having differing pitch or angle.

Monochromatic: The quality of an image made up of varying tones but with only one color.

Monochrome: Single-coloured. An image or medium displaying only black-and- white or greyscale information. Greyscale information displayed in one colour is also monochrome.

Monospacing: Letterspacing that is the same for all characters regardless of their shape or width.

Montage: The process of making a composite picture by bringing together into a single composition a number of different pictures or parts of pictures and arranging these to form a blended whole.

Mottling: A texture similar to orange peel sometimes caused by sharpening. It is particularly visible in flat areas such as sky or skin.

Multichannel image: An image with more than one channel or ink.

Mylar: A polyester film product developed by DuPont often used as the base for magnetically coated storage media.

The typographic design of a publication's name as it appears on the cover of a publication. also called a masthead) A nameplate is the distinctive portion of the front of any publication which usually contains the "name" of the publication, a logo, date and volume information and remains consistent in style from one issue to the next.

Naps Proof: see Cromacheck Proof

NCR paper: No carbon required paper. A special type of paper used for multi-copy forms.

Negative leading: A type specification in which there is less space from baseline to baseline than the size of the type itself (for example 40-point type with 38-point leading).

Negative letterspacing: A type specification in which the space between characters is reduced beyond the default setting either by kerning or tracking.

Neutral density: A measurement of the lightness or darkness of a color. A neutral density of zero (0.00) is the lightest value possible and is equivalent to pure white; 3.294 is roughly equivalent to 100% of each of the CMYK components.

Neutralized color: Any hue dulled by the addition of white, gray, black, or some of the complimentary color.

Newsprint: A coarse, absorbent, low-grade paper used for printing newspapers.

Node: A junction of some type.

Noise: In the scanning context, this refers to random, incorrectly read pixel values, normally due to electrical interference or device instability. In an image, pixels with randomly distributed color values.

No-job state: The state of working in PressWise while no jobs are open. Opposite of Job state.

Nonbreaking space: In typesetting, a special space character placed between two words to keep the words from being separated by a line break.

Nonimpact printer: Any printer that makes marks on the paper without striking it mechanically. The most common nonimpact printers are ink-jet, thermal, and laser.

non-lossy: Image compression without loss of quality.

NTSC: National Television System Committee. The body which governs standards and regulations for television and video in the United States.

NTSC standard: A standard for encoding color which is also compatible with black-and-white signals.

Object: In graphics, a distinct entity. In many object-oriented applications, objects are framed by tiny square handles that enable manipulation.

Object-oriented graphics: Computer graphics based on the use of construction elements (graphic primitives) such as lines, curves, circles, and squares. These construction elements are defined mathematically and combined to form complex images and text.

Object oriented art: Vector-based artwork composed of separate elements or shapes described mathematically rather than by specifying the color and position of every point. This contrasts to bitmap images, which are composed of individual pixels.

 Oblique: A text style created by slanting a roman font to simulate italics. OBLIQUEOblique is the slanting of a san serif type.

OCR: Optical Character Recognition. The analysis of scanned data to recognize characters so that these can be converted into editable text.

 Offset: The distance of an object from some point.

Offset lithography: The most common commercial printing process in which the ink is offset from the plate to a rubber blanket cylinder before being transferred to the paper. A high-volume, ink-based printing process, in which ink adhering to image areas of a lithographic plate is transferred (offset) to a blanket cylinder before being applied to paper or other substrate.

 OFX: Omega File Exchange. A powerful collection of file format conversion programs created by Screen to convert Screen's high-end Omega- formatted files to TIFF or EPS and vice versa.

Oldstyle numerals: Numerals positioned so that the body sits on the baseline, creating ascenders and descenders.

One-up, two-up, etc.: The number of units of a publication printed at one time.

Opacity/opaque: A material characteristic that prevents or restricts the transmission of light.

OPI: Open Prepress Interface. A descriptive language developed by Aldus Corporation and prepress vendors that provides a standardized link between page layout applications and prepress systems. a set of PostScript language comments developed by Aldus Corporation for defining and specifying the placement of high-resolution images in PostScript files on an electronic page layout. A process used on desktop prepress systems where high resolution scans are made and specially linked low resolution images are sent to the designer for placement in the layout. The linked low-res images are automatically swapped with the high-res images when the file is ripped. (Similar to APR.)

optical resolution: In the scanning context, this refers to the number of truly separate readings taken from an original within a given distance, as opposed to the subsequent increase in resolution (but not detail) created by software interpolation. In a scanner, a measurement of the amount of data captured for a given area of the scanned image, typically expressed in dots per inch (DPI). It's important to note that the optical resolution refers to the true resolution of the scanner (usually 300 or 600 dpi for desktop models). When a scanner claims to be able to scan "up to" 2400 or 3600 dpi, this additional resolution is accomplished via software calculations, and is known as interpolated resolution.

Refer to Resolution 

The first line of a paragraph that falls at the bottom of a text column and is separated from the remainder of the paragraph by a page or column break. Also, the last line of a paragraph that falls at the top of a text column and is separated from the remainder of the paragraph by a page or column break. Compare widow.
When a single word or line of type is left at the bottom of a column which is continued on another page it is an orphan.
An outline is created when the background or a specific area of a photograph or illustration is dropped away. Outlining is also referred to as "masking" or "silhouetting."

Outline font: A font stored in a computer or printer as a set of templates from which the font characters, at various sizes, can be drawn.

Out-of-register: Out-of-focus multicolor printing caused by misalignment of printing plates.

Output device: Any hardware equipment, such as a laser printer or imagesetter, that produces text or graphics created on a computer.

Outside margin: The space between the outside trim and the text.

Overline: A font style in which a horizontal line appears above characters. Also, a brief tag line over a headline that catergorizes the story.

A printing technique in which all overlapping inks print and transparent inks blend to form a new color. A printing method that prints one ink on top of another ink. In overprinting, the combination of inks combine to make a new color. The opposite of knockout. A printing technique in which all overlapping inks print on top of each other, and transparent inks blend to form a new color.

See also: knockout, trapping.

Page break: The point at which the flow of text in a document moves to the top of a new page.

Page-description language: A programming language, such as PostScript, that is used to describe output to a printer or display device.

Pages per minute (PPM): A rating of printer output, especially used with laser printers.

Pagination: The process of dividing a document into pages for printing and/or of adding page numbers to the header or footer of each page.

Palette: A subset of the color lookup table which establishes the number of colors that can be displayed on the screen at a particular time.

Pan: To scan horizontally or vertically to bring off-screen portions of a display or image into view.

Pantone Matching System: Abbreviated PMS. A standard color matching system that utilizes a swatch book with over 500 numbered colors.

Paper: A thin, flexible material made from a pulp prepared from rags, wood, or other fibrous material, and used for writing or printing on, for packaging, as structural material, and so on.

Pastel colors: Colors resulting from adding white pigment to neutralized colors.

Pasteup: Traditionally, the process of assembling mechanicals by pasting galleys and line art in place. In desktop publishing, traditional pasteup has largely been replaced by electronic page assembly although some pasteup may still be required for high-resolution images or oversized


Path: In file storage, the route followed by the operating system to find, store, or retrieve files on a disk. In graphics, the accumulation of line segments or curves to be filled or overwritten with text.

Pel: An older acronym for picture element (pixel).

Perspective view: A display method that shows objects in three dimensions with the depth aspect rendered according to its perceived relative distance or position.

Phantom: See Ghost

Photo CD: A method created by Kodak for scanning and storing photographic images on CD ROM.

Pi font: A font made up of non-standard characters such as arrows, map symbols, bullets, and dingbats.

Pica: In typography, a unit of measurement equal to 12 points or approximately one-sixth inch.

Picking: The pulling off of particles from a paper's surface during printing. Particles accumulate on the plate or blanket, causing printing defects.

A file-format for encoding both bitmapped and object-oriented graphical images. A common format for defining images and drawings on the Macintosh platform. PICT 2 supports 24-bit colour.
A standard Macintosh graphics file format. Not recommended for high-resolution output.

Picture window: A rectangle that indicates the position and size of art to be stripped in by the printer.

Pigment: Material, usually a powder, added to a liquid binder to give color to paints or inks.

Pitch: A measure of fixed-width fonts that describes the number of characters that fit in a horizontal inch.

Pixel: Picture element. A tiny rectangular element in the rectilinear grid of the computer screen that is either "painted" on or off to form an image or character. If a pixel is black-and-white, it can be encoded with only 1 bit of information. If the pixel must represent a larger range of colors or shades of gray, the pixel must be encoded with more bits of information as follows: 2 bits for four colors or shades of gray, 4 bits for sixteen colors or shades of gray, and so on. An image of 2 colors is called a bitmap; an image of more than 2 colors is called a pixel map.

Pixel map: The data structure of a color graphic which includes the color, resolution, dimensions, storage information, and number of bits used to describe each pixel. When only 1 bit per pixel is used, the data structure is called a bitmap.

pixel skipping: A means of reducing image resolution by simply deleting pixels throughout the image.

Plate cylinder: Cylinder on a rotary press to which the metal printing plate is attached.

Platemaking: The process of exposing and developing the photochemical plate used to transfer the image on an offset press.

Platen: The cylinder used in most impact printers and typewriters around which the paper wraps and against which the print mechanism strikes the paper.

PLI: A type of removable Hard disk drive. Also commonly reffered to as a Syquest drive.

Plot: To create a graphic or a diagram by connecting points representing values defined by their positions in relation to the x (horizontal) axis, y (vertical) axis, and z (depth) axis.

Plotter: Any device used to draw charts, diagrams, and other line-based graphics.

PMS: (Pantone Matching System) A commonly used system for identifying specific ink colors. The North American printing industry standard for defining non-process colors.

PMT: Photo Multiplier Tube - describes the technology used in the imageing section of most drum scanners.

Acronym for photomechanical transfer. PMTs are created using film negatives or positives and result in a high resolution, positive black and white image on permanent photographic paper. Logos and logotype are commonly converted into PMT for artwork and scanning purposes.

Point: (1) In typography, a unit of measure equal to approximately 1/72 inch, often used to indicate the height of type characters or the amount of space between lines of text (leading). There are 12 points in a pica. (2) In video graphics, a location in a geographic form (such as a line or a circle) or the pixel(s) used to represent that location. (3) As a verb, to move an arrow or cursor to a particular location on the computer screen by using direction keys or a pointing device such as a mouse.

Polygon: Any two-dimensional closed shape consisting of three or more sides. Triangles, rectangles, hexagons, octagons, etc. are all polygons.

Polyline: A line consisting of two or more connected segments.

Portrait mode: A page orientation in which text is printed across the narrower dimension of a rectangular page.

Portrait monitor: A computer display with a shape higher than it is wide, used to display an 8.5-by-11-inch page at full size in portrait mode.

Posterizing: The process of limiting all the colors in an image to some smaller number.

Posterization: The conversion of continuous tone data into a series of visible tonal steps or bands.

A page-description language from Adobe Systems that offers flexible font capability and high-quality graphics. PostScript is the copyrighted term for Page Description Language owned by the Adobe Corporation. PostScript defines the outlines of letters and numbers, permitting limitless flexibility is type sizes, styles, shading, and placement on a page.

 PostScript Printer Description file: See PPD.

PPD: Acronym for PostScript Printer Description, a file format developed by Adobe Systems, Inc., that contains information enabling software to produce the best results possible for each type of designated printer.

PPI: Pixels per Inch. Units of measurement for scanned images. The number of pixels in a linear inch (as opposed to a square inch). Therefore, a 72-ppi monitor displays 72 pixels per linear inch, or 5,184 (72 x 72) pixels per square inch. The term DPI is often used in place of PPI, especially when discussing the resolution of image files and monitors, although PPI is more technically correct.

PPM: Pages per minute. A rating of printer output, especially used with laser printers.

: Evaluating an electronic file before sending it to an imagesetter for the purpose of detecting and correcting any problems that would render the resulting camera-ready film unusable. A typical preflight check would involve ensuring that all placed images and fonts are supplied, that all information needed for output is available, and that some or all of the file outputs successfully to a PostScript laser printer.

Prepress: Tasks usually handled by a printer prior to printing such as color separation, stripping, and platemaking.

Prepress service provider: In the publishing industry, the generic term for color separation houses, commercial printers, electronic prepress houses, service bureaus, and in-plant printers.

Press Proof: A proof run on a press, using the printing inks and substrates for the actual job. This can also be accurately simulated from a page layout file through the use of high end digital proofing systems such as our IRIS inkjet proofer.

Press sheet: In sheet-fed printing, the printed sheet of paper that comes off the press.

Primary color: The hues from which other colors can be mixed. The additive primaries (for video screens) are red, green, and blue. When added together, these hues form white light. The subtractive primaries (for pigments) are cyan, magenta, and yellow. Each subtractive primary is created in a pigment by absorbing (or subtracting) one of the additive primaries from white light. Two primary colors mixed together form a secondary color.

Primitive: A shape, such as a line, curve, circle, or polygon, that can be drawn, stored, or manipulated as a discrete entity by a graphics program.

Print buffer: An area of memory to which print output can be sent for temporary storage until the printer is ready to handle it. A print buffer can be located in a computer's random-access memory, in the printer, on a disk, or in a special memory unit between the computer and the printer.

Printer: A computer peripheral that puts computer-generated text and images on paper or other medium.

Printer controller: The processing hardware in a printer, including the raster image processor, the memory, and the microprocessor.

Printer engine: The portion of a printer that performs the actual printing. Many printer engines are self-contained units that are easily replaced.

Printer font: A font residing in or intended for a printer. Printer fonts differ from screen fonts which are intended for displaying characters on a computer screen. Also known as Type 1 Fonts or Outline Fonts, are Postscript language programs that mathematically describe the appearance of each character in a font, using lines and curves. Printer fonts generate smooth output on-screen and on a postscript printer at any size. You must have a printer font installed for any typeface you print. This category can include TrueType fonts, as well as Postscript fonts.

 Printer's marks: The marks printed on a press sheet or film to aid in positioning the print area on the press sheet, checking the quality of the printed image, and trimming the final pages. Printer's marks may include calibration bars, crop marks, and registration marks.

Printer spread: A pair of pages positioned across a fold from each other on the press sheet.Process colors The four transparent inks (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) used in four-color process printing. See also Color separation.

Print head: The part of a printer that mechanically controls the imprinting of characters on paper. The print head can consist of pins that strike a ribbon, ink jets, or pins that pass an electrostatic charge to the paper.

Printing plates
: The metallic or synthetic sheets, usually imaged from film negatives, that are used to transfer ink to paper (actually, to the printing blanket) on a commercial printing press. One plate is required for each color being printed.

Print job: Any number of characters, images, pages, or documents sent to a printer as a single unit.

Print quality: The clarity of printer output, often determined by resolution.

Print server: A computer dedicated to managing a network printer.

Print spooler: Software that intercepts a print job on its way to the printer and sends it to a disk or memory where it can be held until the printer is ready to process it.

Process color: Any one of the three subtractive primary colors (cyan, magenta, or yellow) or black. Process color may also refer to the technique of creating full color images by blending percentages of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks. A method of color printing in which the printer uses four colors of ink -- cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK) -- to create all the colors in the publication. See also: spot color.

 process ink colours: CMYK pigments used in printing processes, chosen to produce the widest range of colour mixtures.

Processing: Manipulating data within a computer system. In a RIP system, processing means rasterizing the data and outputting it to film or other medium.

Profile: The colour characteristics of an input or output device, used by a CMS to ensure colour fildelity.

Proof: A reasonably accurate representation of how a finished page is intended to look. Proofs can be in black and white or color.

Proof Cromacheck: A multi layer chemical Proof produced from pre coloured polyester. Also known as a Naps Proof or chemical proof.

Proof Cromalin: A laminated chemical proof produced from films using dry powder toners. Also known as a chemical proof.

Proof Digital: A proof produced without films direct from the digital data.

Page: One side of a leaf of a book, magazine, newspaper, letter, and so on.

Proofread: To check typeset material for spelling, punctuation, and basic document layout (alignment of elements, etc.).

Proportional font: A set of characters with a variable amount of horizontal space alloted to each. For example, the letter i has less space allotted to it than the letter w.

Proportional spacing: A type of character spacing in which the horizontal space each character occupies is proportional to the width of the character.

Pull quote:
A sentence or phrase excerpted from the body copy and set in large type, used to break up running text and draw the reader's attention to the page. Also known as a blurb, breakout, or callout. Pull-quotes (also called out-quotes) are short phrases or sentences taken from body copy and emphasized by enlargement, boxing, or color background to highlight surrounding content.

 Pulp: Beaten and refined vegetable fibers (cellulose) to which chemicals and fillers are added, used to make paper.

Punch calibration file: A PressWise file containing the center punch hole locations of specific imaging devices.

quality factor: A multiplication factor (between 1 and 2) applied to output screen ruling to calculate scanning resolution for optimum output quality. This is also known as the halftoning factor.

Quarter tone: Tonal value of dot, located approximately halfway between highlight and midtone. Tones between shadow and midtones are known as 3/4 tones and those between highlight and midtones are known as 1/4 tones.

Quantity: Any number (positive or negative, whole or fractional) used to indicate a value.

Queue: A stored arrangement of computer data or programs, waiting to be processed (usually in the order in which they were received).

Quoin: A small wedge, usually of wood, used for tightening or locking up forms or galleys in pre-electronic printing.

Rag: The irregularity along the left or right edge of a column of text.

Type which is set with an uneven alignment of characters on the left or right side has been set ragged. A common alignment choice is "flush left/ragged right" type. Because of its poor legibility, "flush right/ragged left" type alignment is rarely used.

Ragged right: Text alignment that is flush on the left margin and uneven on the right.

Rag paper: Paper containing at least 25% rag or cotton fiber pulp.

Radial fill: A fill that is projected from a center point outward in all directions.

Ramping: The illusion of a gradual change from one color to another, like the effect of an airbrush, created in the software by a series of discrete steps.

Raster: A rectangular pattern of lines. A synonym for grid. Sometimes used to refer to the grid of addressable positions in an output device.

Raster graphics: A method of generating graphics in which images are stroed as multitudes of small, independently controlled dots (pixels) arranged in rows and columns.

Raster image: An image formed by patterns of light and dard pixels in a rectangular array. See also bitmap.

Raster image processor (RIP): A hardware and/or software device that converts vector graphics and/or text to raster images.

Rasterize: The process of converting digital information into pixels. Also the process used by an imagesetter to translate PostScript files before they are imaged to film or paper. See also RIP.

RC paper: Resin-coated photopaper used in high-resolution typesetting.

Reader spread: A layout made in two-page spreads as readers would see them. For example, an 11 by 17 reader's spread of a 16-page manual would have pages 2 and 3 next to each other and so on.

Real-time animation: Computer animation in which images are updated on the screen at the same rate at which the objects simulated might move in the real world.

Ream: 500 sheets of paper.

Recto page: The right-hand page of an open book or spread. Opposite of verso page.

Red-green-blue: See RGB.

Reduced Instruction Set Computing: See RISC.

Reflectance/reflection: The change in direction of particular wavelengths of light by bending or throwing back off a surface.

Reflective Art: Artwork prepared so that it may be photographed or input into a computer by scanning or digital capture.

Reflective copy: Artwork such as a photograph or painting that will be photographed by the printer using reflected light.

Reformat: In desktop publishing, to change the way a page looks by altering its layout, fonts, etc. In data storage, to prepare a disk for reuse which already contains data, effectively destroying the existing data.

Refraction: The bending of wavelengths of light as it passes one medium to another, separating the light into different wavelengths that show their hues.

Registration: The process of precisely aligning elements or superimposing layers in a document or a graphic so that everything will print in the correct relative position. The precise alignment of the various color plates used when printing. In order to properly register plates on press, printers rely on the placement of registration marks on film or mechanicals. Improperly registered printing plates give rise to a condition appropriately referred to as misregistration.

Registration marks: Marks placed on a page so that in printing, the elements or layers in a document can be arranged correctly with respect to each other. Figures (usually crossed lines and a circle) placed outside the trim page boundaries in color separation overlays to provide a common element for proper alignment.

Rel: Recorder element. The minimum distance between two recorded points (spots) in an imagesetter.

Rendering: The creation of an image containing geometric models, using color and shading to give the image a realistic look.

Repaginate: To recalculate the page numbering in a document.

Reprint: A new impression or a second or subsequent edition of a printed work. Also, the publication in one country of a work previously published in another.

Repro: Type proofs, usually on RC paper. Also a shortening of the term Graphic Reproduction.

Reprographic paper: Copier paper.

Res: A term used to define image resolution instead of ppi. Res 12 indicates 12 pixels per millimetre.

To change the resolution of an image. Resampling down discards pixel information in an image; resampling up adds pixel information through interpolation. An increase or reduction in the number of pixels in an image, required to change its resolution without altering its size. See also down-sampling and interpolation. Altering the amount of data in an image by changing its size and/or resolution. Reducing the file size of an image containing more information than is necessary for final output is an example of resampling, and is done in Photoshop by choosing "Image Size" from the "Image" menu.

See also: resolution.

Resize: To change the size of an image while maintaining its resolution.

The clarity or fineness of detail attained by a printer or monitor in producing an image. Resolution is often expressed as the number of pixels per inch in a displayed image, the number of dots per inch in printer output, or the number of bits per pixel.
The amount of data available to represent graphic detail in a given area. In an image file or on a computer monitor, resolution refers to the number of pixels in a linear inch (PPI); on a printer, to the number of dots printed in a linear inch (DPI); on a scanner, to the number of samples saved for a given area of the scanned image; and in a halftone, to the number of lines of halftone dots per inch (LPI).

See also: optical resolution, screen resolution.

Retouch: To edit an image to eliminate imperfections or simply to alter it. Retouching can be done by hand, by airbrush, or electronically by prepress software.

Reverse: Type appearing in white or other light color on a black or dark background. Sometimes called a knockout if the type is the color of the paper.

Reverse Print: Right reading plate or right reading emusion down film. Also Refered to as Inside Print.

Revert: To return to the last saved version of a document.

RGB: red-green-blue. A method of mixing colors by combining red, green, and blue light. Most computer monitors use this system. See also additive color primaries. Acronym for red, green, blue, the colors of projected light from a computer monitor that, when combined, simulate a subset of the visual spectrum. Also refers to the color model of most digital artwork. See also CMYK.

 RGB monitor: A color monitor that receives red, green, and blue levels over separate lines.

Rich Text Format (RTF): A Microsoft adaptation of Document Content Architecture (DCA) that is used for transferring formatted text documents between applications or platforms.

Right-reading, emulsion-side-down, page art: Art printed as a negative on film in such a way that the type reads correctly (left to right) when the emulsion side of the film is facing down.

RIP: Acronym for raster image processor, the part of an output device or imagesetter that converts digital information into dots on film or paper. See also Rasterize. (Raster Image Processor) A software program (usually resident on a laser printer or imagesetter) that interprets PostScript page information and translates it into data needed by the printing engine to produce printed dots.

River: Unsightly white space that seems to run through a text column when word spacing is too loose.

Roman: A type face or type style in which the characters are upright. Compare italic and oblique.

Rotate: To turn a model or graphical image so that it is viewed at a different angle.

Rough: A loosely sketched graphic design idea, usually in colored pencil on tracing paper.

Row: A series of items arranged horizontally within some type of framework or matrix. Compare column.

Rpi: Rels (recorder elements) per inch. A measurement of the number of discrete steps that exposure units in imagesetting devices can make per inch.

RTF: See Rich Text Format.

Rubber banding: In computer graphics, changing the shape of an object made up of connected lines by selecting a point on an anchored line and dragging it to a new location.

Rubylith: Two-layer acetate film of red or amber emulsion on a clear base for making color separations.

A line printed above, below, or to the side of text or some other element.
RULE A rule is a line of varied length or thickness. Rules can be solid, screened, or vignetted in black or colored ink.

Ruler: In some application programs, anon-screen measuring tool extending horizontally across the page, marked off in inches or some other unit of measure, used to show line and column wides, tab settings, paragraph indents, and so on. Some programs may also employ a ruler along the vertical edge of the document.

Run around: In page composition, to position text so that it flows around an illustration or other display.

Run-in head: A subhead, usually in bold or italic type, which is part of a paragraph.

Runnability: Paper qualities (strength, dimensional stability, cleanliness, and surface integrity) that determine how well a sheet performs on the press.

Running head, running foot: One or more lines of text in the top (head) or bottom (foot) margin area of a page, composed of one or more elements such as the page number, the name of the chapter, the date, and so on.

San Serif Type:
San serif typefaces have straight stems and cross-bars with no tiny extensions or decorations at the end of any letter part. Examples of common san serif types are Helvetica, Franklin Gothic, and Univers. A typeface in which the characters have no serifs (short lines or ornaments at the upper or lower end of character strokes). A sans serif typeface usually has a straightforward, geometric appearance. See also serif.

Saturation: The amount of gray in a color. More gray in a color means lower saturation, less gray means higher saturation. the attribute of colour perception that expresses the degree of departure from the gray of the same lightness. The extent to which one or two of the three RGB primaries predominate in a colour. As quantities of RGB equalize, colour becomes desaturated towards grey or white.

: The act of reducing or enlarging an image, while leaving the amount of image data intact.

See also: resampling. Scanner: A device used for converting analog imaged into Digital Data A scanner converts a photograph or piece of artwork into an electronic grahics file. Scans used in printing production are usually saved as EPS or TIFF files.

Screen: Screens are the "tinting" or "shading" of a solid image area. Screens are defined in percentages from 99% to 1% of solid (which is 100%). Screening can be applied to type, the background that type overprints, or a piece of artwork.

Screen Angle: The direction of lines or rows of dots in a halftone screen. Different screen angles are often employed for each printing plate to eliminate moiré patterns.

Screen Fonts: Also called bitmapped fonts, are maps of dots (used by computer monitors) that represent specific fonts at specific sizes. You must install one bitmapped font for each Postscript printer font you have installed. Note: TrueType fonts do not require screen fonts.

screen frequency: The number of rows or lines of dots in a halftone image within a given distance, normally stated in lines per inch (Ipi) or lines per centimetre (Ipcm). A frequency of 200 lpi would only be used in high-quality printing.

Screen resolution/screen frequency/screen ruling
: All these terms are used to refer to the number of lines per inch (LPI) in a halftone screen.

screen ruling: Another term used for screen frequency.

second original: High-quality, contone reproduction of an image, intended to be identical to the original.

secondary colour: Colour obtained by mixing two primary colours. Although known as primary colorants, C, M and Y are the secondary colours of light. Red plus green produce yellow for example.

SEP: A PostScript file format created from PageMaker that can contain multiple pages as well as links in the form of OPI comments to high-resolution images, in color or in black and white.

Separation: Artwork for commercial printing that has been separated into individual pages containing components of each color. Process color separations are represented on four pages (usually film) consisting of combinations of the four process colors. Spot color separations consist of one page, or piece of film, for each spot color used. See Color separation.

Serif Type: Serifs are the tiny decorative extensions applied to the ends of a type font's character. Serifs enhance reading flow and reduce eye strain in long, text-heavy documents and books. Examples of common serif types are Palatino, Times, Garamond, and Bodoni.

Service bureau
: A company that specializes in providing camera-ready film output from electronic files.

Shading: see screen

Shadow: The darkest area of an image.

Sheet-fed press
: A printing press that is fed by individual sheets of paper, rather than a roll, or &quotweb." See also: web press.

Sheet side guides: Printer's marks that appear along each side near the bottom of a press sheet to aid in positioning the print area on the press sheet.

Sheetwise layout: A layout in which different plates are used to print the front and back of a press sheet. Sheetwise layouts are used for creating book signatures for multiple-page documents.

Shingling: An adjustment for the way page images in a folded signature tend to move toward the outer or facing edge of a book. The amount of shingling needed steadily increases as you move toward the center signatures in the book.

A sidebar is a short article that accompanies a longer, feature article. Sidebars can amplify content or tied related information to the feature.

 Signature: A completed press sheet, before folding, collating, binding, and trimming.

Silhouetting: A silhouette is created when a photograph or illustration's background is dropped away. Silhouetting is also referred to as "outlining."

Slab Serif Type: When a type font's serifs are squared off, rather than tapered to a point, they are referred to a slab serif types. Examples of common slab serif types are Courier, Lubalin and Egyptiennes.

Specular highlights: See highlights.

Spot color: Any premixed ink that is not one of or a combination of the four process color inks. A color that is produced by printing an ink of that specific color, rather than creating the color by combining CMYK inks (e.g., printing green ink as opposed to printing cyan ink on top of yellow ink).

See also: >process color.

Speckling: Isolated light pixels in predominantly dark image areas, sometimes caused by incorrect readings or noise in the scanning device.

spectral highlight: A bright reflection from a light source containing little or no detail.

Spectrophotometer: An extremely accurate colour measurement device using a diffraction grating to split light into its component wavelengths, which are then measured by numerous light sensors.

See Trap Surface Print: Wrong reading plate or Wrong reading emulsion down film. A spread is the relative viewing position of a pair of left and right-hand pages in a book or publication. A "reader's" spread is the consecutive placement of pages by page numbers. A "printer's" spread is the imposed position of a pages based on how many pages are in the publication.

Staircasing: See aliasing.

 Step-and-repeat: A layout in which two or more copies of the same piece are placed on a single plate. This is useful for printing several copies of a small layout, such as a business card, on a single sheet. Also called a multiple-up layout.

Stochastic screening
: A relatively new technology for reproducing continuous tone images through the printing process, involving the placement of miniscule, random spots of process colors on paper rather than the repeating pattern of uniform dots used in standard halftone screening. It eliminates color shifts caused by slight misregistration, and is used widely (and very effectively) in large-format digital color printing devices.

 Stripping: The act of assembling individual film negatives into flats for printing. Also referred to as film assembly. The preparation and assembling of film prior to platemaking.

Subhead: A subhead is smaller than a headline and larger than body copy. Subheads are useful for breaking up long articles, identifying specific content for the reader, and giving the reader a break from long passages of copy.

Substrate: The base material used to carry or support an image, for example paper or film.

Subtractive primaries: Another term for primary colorants.

Supersampling: The capture of more grey levels per colour than is required for image manipulation or output. This additional data allows shadow details to be heightened, for example.

Scalable font: Any font that can be scaled to produce characters of varying sizes.

Scale: To size proportionally.

Scanned image: The result when a photograph, slide, paper image, or other two- or three-dimensional image is converted to digital format.

Scanner: An electronic device that digitizes and converts photographs, slides, paper images, or other two-dimensional images into bitmapped images.

Scissoring: Another name for clipping.

Score: Crease with a dull rule in preparation for folding.

Screen: A pattern of dots used to reproduce color or grayscale continuous-tone images. Screens are produced by photographing the original artwork through an actual screen of fine lines. The fineness of the screen can vary from 65 lines to 150 or more lines per inch. Sixty-five- to eighty-five-line screens are used for printing on newsprint. Better paper can accommodate finer line screens. See also AM screening, FM screening, and halftone.

Screen angle: The degree of rotation at which a halftone screen is printed. Each element in a four-color separation must be photographed through a screen that has been placed at a specific angle to eliminate moirè patterns when the colors are superimposed. Black is normally shot at 45 degrees, magenta at 75 degrees, cyan at 105 degrees, and yellow at 90 degrees(Litho). Precise registration is required.

Screen dump: A copy of the computer screen, taken by copying video memory or main memory and then converted to an image file. Also called a snapshot.

Screen font: A bitmap representation of a font used to display characters on the screen.

Screen frequency: The density of dots on the halftone screen, commonly measured in lines per inch (lpi).

Secondary color: A color created from mixing two primary colors. Cyan, magenta, and yellow are secondary colors to red, green, and blue, and vice versa. See primary color.

Serif: Any of the short lines or ornaments at the upper or lower ends of the strokes that form a character in a typeface. Also, a typeface whose characters contain serifs. See also sans serif.

Shade: Color resulting from adding black pigment to a pure hue.

Shadow: The darkest part of an image, represented in the halftone by the largest dots.

Sheet feeder: A device that accepts a stack of paper and feeds it to a printer one page at a time.

Sidebar: A block of text placed to the side of the main text body in a document, often set off by a border, colored background, or other graphic element.

Signature: Folded press sheet consisting of 4, 8, 12, 16, or 32 pages. Silhouette: A photograph from which background image has been removed, outlining the subject.

Silica gel: A desiccant (moisture absorbent) often packaged with electronic equipment or any other item that may be adversely affected by moisture.

Skew: To slant an object by a prescribed degree.

Sleeve: An envelope for a floppy disk of Flexographic printing cylinder.

Slitter: Machine for cutting rolls of paper or film lengthwise.

Small caps: A font of capital letters that are slightly smaller than the standard capital letters in that typeface.

Smoothing: The adjusting of a bitmap image by rounding the jagged edges to give them a more uniform look.

Smoothness: Flatness of a sheet of paper, which affects the resolution of the printed image.

Snap: A drawing feature that causes objects to align with an invisible grid when created, moved, resized, or rotated.

Snap grid: An invisible grid to which an object snaps when you create, move, resize, or rotate it.

Snapshot: A screen dump. A copy of the video screen, taken by copying video memory or main memory and then converted to an image file.

Soft copy: The temporary images presented on a computer display screen. See also hard copy.

Soft font: A downloadable font.

Soft return: A line break inserted in a document that only takes effect when the word following the soft return would extend into the page margin.

Solarization: A photographic effect in which the image combines positive and negative areas, Solarization can be accomplished by exposing the film to light during processing or by using retouching software.

Spectrophotometer: An instrument used to measure energy in a sample of light or pigmented surface.

Spiral binding: Mechanical binding using a single wire passing through pre-drilled holes.

Spline: In computer graphics, a curve calculated by a mathematical function that connects separate points with a high degree of smoothness. Spot: A composite dot created through the halftoning process. A spot is composed of a group of dots arranged in a pattern reflecting the gray level of a pixel to be drawn at a particular location.

Spot color: A special ink added to a job as a solid color rather than a combination of the four process colors. When the job is color separated, each spot color has its own separation.

Spot function: A PostScript function used to create a given type of screen in a halftone. spread (1) Two or more adjacent pages. (2) A color trapping option in which a color object is slightly enlarged when printed in order to overlap the knockout area with the background.

Stacking order: The order in which text and graphics overlap in a page layout program.

Stairstep: The jagged appearance of a graphic line or curve when reproduced using pixels. Also called jaggies.

Star targets: The printed pinwheels, used primarily in printing color separations, to align the different plates and to measure dot doubling, grain, and slurring during printing.

Strikethrough: One or more lines drawn through a range of text. This is often used in electronic text editing to indicate text that is to be deleted at some future time.

Stripping: The assembling of all photographic negatives or positives necessary to create a printing plate of the entire page. Halftones and color separations are often stripped into the film created from an electronically assembled page.

Stroke: A line representing part of a letter or other type character.

Stub: The left-hand column of a table.

Style: A variation of a typeface, such as bold or italic.

Style sheet: A file of instructions used to apply character, paragraph, and page formats to a document.

Stylus: A pen-like pointing device, usually attached to a grphics tablet.

Subscript: A character printed smaller than standard text and positioned slightly below the baseline; commonly used in mathematical and chemical notation.

Substance: The basis weight of certain grades of paper. For example, 20 lb bond is also called substance 20 or sub 20.

Substrate: In printing, a substance to which an ink or pigment is permanently transferred, such as paper or acetate.

Subtractive color primaries: The primary colors used in pigments and printing: cyan, magenta, and yellow. See additive color primaries.

Subtractive color mixing: The process of mixing pigments to create new, darker colors that further reduce (subtract from) the reflection of light from the paper surface.

Superscript: A character printed smaller than standard text and positioned slightly above the baseline of the surrounding text; commonly used in reference citation and mathematical and technical notation.

Surface print: To Print on the Surface of a film using Wrong Reading Plates..... See also Reverse Print.

Surprint: To print one image or color over another.

: Acronym for Specifications for Web Offset Publications. A standard set of specifications for separations, proofs, and color printing.

Synchronize: To align the baselines of body paragraphs along a page grid.

Tab: A character used to align lines and columns on the screen or page. A tab adds white space to set off or highlight blocks of copy.

Table: A data structure characterized by rows and columns with data potentially occupying each cell formed by the intersection of row and column.

Table lookup: The process of using a known value to search for data in a previously constructed table of values.

Tabloid: A large-format publication, usually half the size of a standard newspaper.

Tag: An identifier used to categorize or locate data. See profile.

Tag Image File Format: TIFF. A standard file format commonly used for scanning, storage, and interchange of grayscale image.

Teasers: Teasers are short phrases placed on the outside front cover which are meant to increase the reader's interest in the publication's inside contents.

An electronic prototype of a publication that provides the layout grid and style sheet necessary to create documents Templates are predetermined and saved formats for page layouts. They are designed to be used as a starting point for each successive page or issue. The use of templates saves time and reduces errors in layout formats.

Text paper: Very high quality paper, made in white and colors, in many textures and weights. Many have matching cover sheets.

Texture: In computer graphics, shading and other attributes applied to graphical image to give it the appearance of a physical substance.

Thermal printer: A nonimpact printer that uses heat to generate an image on specially treated paper.

Thermal wax-transfer printer: A special type of nonimpact printer that uses heat to melt colored wax onto paper to create an image. A printing process using small heating elements to melt dots of wax pigment on a carrier film, which are then transferred to paper or transparent film by contact. This differs from the dye sublimation process in that individual dots do not fuse together, so thermal wax transfer appears to be of a lower resolution.

Thermography: Printing process in which an engraved look is achieved by fusing thick ink to paper (as in stationery).

Thin Space: A thin space is rarely used today. It was originally developed when hot metal was the popular form of typesetting and situations often arose where a minute amount of space was needed to center or justify a line of type. The only common use for thin spaces is placing them before and after an em or an en dash. A thin space is approximately one-third the width of an en space.

Threshold: The point at which an action begins or changes. The threshold setting used in scanning line art determines which pixels are converted to black and which will become white. The threshold defined in the USM process determines how large a tonal contrast must be before sharpening will be applied to it.

Thumbnail: Rough sketch, display, or printout of a page layout. Sometimes thumbnails are reduced in size to fit several on a single page.

Tick marks: Marks on a ruler showing the increments of measure.

Tag Image File Format. A standard file format commonly used for scanning, storage, and interchange of grayscale image. Acronym for Tagged Image File Format, a file format developed by Aldus, Microsoft, and leading scanner vendors for bitmap images containing grayscale or color information. A document format developed by Aldus, Microsoft, and leading scanner vendors as a standard for bitmap graphics, including scanned images. A TIFF image can be monochrome (black and white), grayscale, or color, with a bit depth ranging from 1-bit to 32-bit.

Tiling: Tiling is the process of positioning lasers or negatives together to create oversized sheets when an output unit does not have the size capabilities available at 100%. Running out portions of a document at 100%, aligning them with each other and taping them together is a common form of tiling.

Tint: Color resulting from white pigment being added to a pure hue.see Screen Tissue overlay: Sheet of tissue paper on a piece of artwork or mechanical with instructions to the printer, including color indications.

Tone: In graphic arts, a tint. In relation to audio, a sound at a particular frequency.

tone curves: Also known as gamma curves. These are used to smoothly adjust the overall tonal range of an image, or the individual tonal ranges of each colour channel.

Toner: Plastic magnetic ink used in electronic printing.

Toner cartridge: A disposable container that holds toner for a laser printer or other similar machine.

Total ink coverage
: The maximum total amount of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black ink that will be printed to create an image. Although 400% is possible (100% for each of the CMYK inks), a maximum of 280-300% is recommended to reduce printing problems.

The overall adjustement of white space between selected characters and words. Manually adjusting the overall amount of space between letters and words is tracking. Tracking increases and decreases word density and can be used for copyfitting purposes. Adjustment of tracking is often needed with "justified" type to even out the rivers of white space within body copy. Creative tracking can also remove widows, orphans, bad word-breaks, and undesirable hyphenation.

 Transparency (chrome): Film color positive, such as a 35mm slide.

Transparent: Operation that is either automatic or so easy or intuitive as to be "invisible" to the user.

Trap: The process of making the darker of two adjoining colours overprint the lighter to ensure no misregister appears in the final printed product. Overlap allowed when two colors print adjacent to each other, used to avoid the appearance of white space between colors due to misregistration.

Trapping: The process of creating an overlap between abutting colors to compensate for imprecision in the printing process. Trim page size Area of the finished page after the job is printed, bound, and trimmed. A printing technique in which printed colors that abut each other are slightly overlapped to minimize the effects of misregistration of the printing plates, which otherwise would cause the paper color to show through in certain areas. See also: knockout, overprint. A prepress term referring to the addition of a slight overlap where two colors touch. This overlap compensates for the natural misregister that occurs during a press run. Without trap, misregister could allow gaps to occur between colors and the paper color would show through. (Sometimes called "chokes and spreads.")

Triad: Three colors taken at approximately equal distances apart on the color wheel.

Trim: To cut away folded or uneven edges. Also, the final size of a printed page.

Tritone: An image (usually a halftone) that appears to be monochromatic in color but requires three colors to print.

TRP: A file extension indicating that a file has been trapped in Aldus TrapWise.

Truncate: To cut off the beginning or end of a series of characters or numbers.

Turnaround time: The eleapsed time between the submission of a job and the return of the completed results.

Type: The characters that make up printed text. As a verb, to enter information by means of a keyboard.

Typeface: A specific, named design of a set of printed characters, such as Helvetica or Courier, that has a specified obliqueness and stroke weight. A typeface is not the same as a font, which is a typeface in a specific size (for example, 10-point Helvetica).

Typeface family: The collection of all related typefaces, such as Helvetica, Helvetica Bold, Helvetica Oblique, and Helvetica Bold Oblique.

Type size: The size of printed characters, usually measured in points.

Type style: The specific obliqueness or stroke weight of a typeface. In some page layout programs, type style may also refer to special type effects, such as outline, shadow, or strikethrough.

Typography: The choice and arrangement of type.

: Abbreviation for under color removal, a technique for minimizing ink coverage. When TrapWise converts RGB data to CMYK, it analyzes a bitmap image for excessive cyan, magenta or yellow in dark areas and replaces those colors with a similar percentage of black. A printing process in which black ink is substituted for equal percentages of cyan, magenta, and yellow inks to decrease the total ink coverage. UCR is identical to GCR (Gray Component Replacement), except that it is applied only to neutral or shadow areas of the printed image.

Uncoated offset paper: Any good quality, general-purpose, uncoated printing paper.

Undercolor removal (UCR): The process of converting quantities of cyan, magenta, and yellow in black or neutral shadow areas of an image to equivalent gray levels which are then printed using black ink. UCR uses less ink and can eliminate trapping problems in dark areas without altering color saturation of hue. See GCR

Underline: A line set at or slightly below the baseline of one or more letters of text.

Underscore: Underline.

Uppercase: Capital letters, such as A, B, C. The name is derived from the practice of placing capitalized letters in the top (upper) case of a pair of type cases. See lowercase.

Upward compatibility: A computer product, especially software, designed to perform adequately with computer products expected to become widely used in the foreeable future.

USM: Unsharp masking. A process used to sharpen images.

Value: The lightness or darkness or shade of a color.

Vector: In computer graphics, a line drawn from a starting point to an ending point, both of which are coordinates in a rectangular grid with horizontal (x) and vertical (y) axes. Vectors are used in draw programs to create graphical images from sets of lines.

Vectorise: The process of turning a bitmap into a Vector.

Vector objects: Artwork or text characters constructed from mathematical statements instead of individual pixels. Vector objects usually take less disk space than bitmap images and can be scaled to virtually any size without losing visual quality. Fonts (such as PostScript and TrueType), illustrations from drawing applications, and files from page-layout applications are common examples of vector objects.

Verso page: The left-hand page of an open book or spread. Opposite of recto page.

Vertical blanking interval: On raster-scan displays, the time required for the electron beam to move from the bottom of the screen to the top. During this interval, the beam is turned off. See also blanking and horizontal blanking interval.

Vignette: In general context, an image in which the colors or tones gradually bleed out into the background. In prepress, often used to refer to a continuous gradation of colors. See graduated fill.

Virgule: Diagonal slash or solidus (/).

Visible spectrum: Wavelengths perceived by the human eye as colors.

Visual neutral density: The degree to which a color is perceived to be light or dark. Prepress service providers measure visual neutral density using a densitometer with no process filters.

Warm color: Normally, colors in the magenta range of the color spectrum.

Watermark: Non-functional design impressed on paper during manufacture.

Web press
: A printing press that is fed by a roll, or &quotweb" of paper, rather than individual sheets. See also: sheet-fed press.

Weight: The density of letters, traditionally described as light, regular, bold, extra bold, and so on.

White noise: Noise that contains components from all frequencies of interest. It is called "white" by analogy to white light which contains light from all visible frequencies.

white point: A movable reference point that defines the lightest area in an image, causing all other areas to be adjusted accordingly.

White space: The areas of the page without text or graphics, used as a deliberate element in good graphic design.

Widow: A single word, portion of a word, or a few short words left on a line by themselves at the end of a paragraph or column of type. Usually considered undesirable on the printed page, a widow can usually be eliminated through editing or rewording. See orphan.

Width: The horizontal measure of letters, described as condensed, normal, and expanded.

Wire-o binding: Elegant mechanical binding using double series of wire loops through slots rather than holes.

Word space: The amount of space between words.

Wordwrap: The function of a word processor that breaks lines of text automatically so that they stay within the page or column margins. Line breaks created by wordwrap are called soft returns.

Work-and-tumble layout: A layout in which a single plate is used to print both sides of a two-sided job. The paper is run through once, then flipped over, top to bottom, to run on the opposite side. The gripper edge changes from the edge that was the head on the first pass to the edge that was the tail.

Work-and-turn layout:

A layout in which a single plate is used to print both sides of a two-sided job. The paper is run through once, then flipped over, side to side, to run on the opposite side. Both sides use the same gripper edge to hold the paper for positioning, and repeat the same sequence of pages on both sides.

Wove: Smooth paper finish.

Wraparound text:
Text that wraps around a graphic. Also called runaround text. When type is shortened or follows around an illustration, graphic, or photograph, it is called a wrap-around type.

WYSIWYG: (pronounced "wizzywig"): An acronym for "What You See Is What You Get." A display method that shows document layout and images on the screen as they will appear on the printed page.

Xerography: Electrostatic printing using magnetic ink particles (toner) where the image is fused to the paper by heat and pressure.

X-height: The height of the main body of a lowercase letter, excluding ascenders or descenders.

Z-fold: Fan fold, as in a map or brochure.

Zoom: To magnify or reduce your view of the current document.

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